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Durham, Nc: Duke University Press, It has not been an easy task, and in the process of researching and writing history, we may have ended up with even more questions than answers. In a regime that made of music a powerful instrument of propaganda to build consensus and project an unrealistic picture of political legitimacy, can hints of resistance be found in silence?
If the veiled criticism found in some songs of the most well-known musician of Congo — Franco — turn out to be in service of the regime, what implications should follow from this? And how is all of this actually reflected in the musical production?
One thing that we can claim for sure is that the ambivalent peculiarity of the musical reality we have referred to many times can be traced in many songs and lyrics, even beyond those we analysed here. Leading up to the presidential elections, the Congolese government sponsored a Franco record that was meant to raise support for Mobutu.
The front of the LP sleeve shows a characteristic picture of Mobutu: he wears an abacost , a leopard-skin toque and raises his walking stick. The back of the sleeve contains a text in French by Sakombi Inongi, the Minister of information, mobilisation, propaganda and animation politique. Similar statements to mobilise the people will recur throughout the song. After you vote for him again Look one another in the eyes Mobutu, sorcerers are still there.
By alerting the listener to the existence of people disloyal to Mobutu, the song promotes a form of active social control. This can, furthermore, also be understood as a warning to those who did not support Mobutu.
After all, other listeners of the song have also heard this message and they will be alert to people who possibly are disloyal to Mobutu. As these two strophes recur thirteen times throughout the song, their twofold message is hard to neglect. An important theme in the song is the sense of national unity that Mobutu supposedly brought to the country. Shout, shout the name Mobutu It will cost you nothing Mobutu restored national unity Travel all over Zaire Speak in any language There is no one who will question you Was it like this in the past?
The message of these lines seems to be that people all over Zaire support Mobutu.
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Later in the song, the vastness and the modernity of the country are underlined by references to various means of transport: buses, cars, trains and ships, but also airplanes, which hint at the supposed modernity of Zaire. The sense of national unity and pride of the country is supplemented by a distrust of foreign interference. Foreign praise for Zaire may hide economic motives that lay at the basis of a feigned fondness for Zaire:. It also shows that the people of Zaire can be proud of the natural resources of the country. Foreign investors may, after all, be interested in these resources.
Once again, the message of the song is twofold: It warns, but it also instils pride. Hence, the song addresses the religious diversity of Zaire. The fact that it was sponsored by the government and approved by the Minister responsible for information and propaganda shows how music was used by the Zairean government to unite the country and, in a somewhat subtler way, also to warn critics not to openly criticise Mobutu.
The lyrics of the song, moreover, show how music can be used to support political aims. In this case, the supposed richness, modernity and unity of Congo are stressed, while possible divisions, such as religious diversity, are downplayed, since all religions are supposed to be unified in their support for Mobutu. We have made a few minor changes in the English translation, but only where this improves its readability. In , Franco and O. The song is mostly in Lingala, but a few lines are in French as well.
It deals with the legacy of Patrice Lumumba, who was murdered in More specifically, it focuses on the relation between Lumumba and Mobutu, who became president in In , Mobutu rehabilitated Lumumba and it is this rehabilitation that is taken up in the song. According to the text, Lumumba was killed because he was a nationalist. Mobutu, in other words, urges the Congolese to prioritise their national identity over other identities. The lyrics, furthermore, suggest that it was Mobutu who actively rehabilitated Lumumba.
Later in the song, Mobutu is directly addressed.
Franco presses Mobutu to walk in the footsteps of Lumumba, but he also elaborates on the similarities that supposedly exist between Lumumba and Mobutu:. Runico La formules magique. Collecte et concepteur de charmes uniques. Shaolin Meditation. Alex Maxim.lobdairewoodvi.ga
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Thelema Tarot. The Fool's Dog. Christian mysticism. Aug 26, Helen Epstein rated it really liked it. A biography of a prolific author by a prolific author. This is a delicious biography that takes you into the world of a writer of the 19th cntury with surprising parallels to the writer's world today: dealing with publicity, publishers, fans and contracts as well as finding the time to write, looking for good stories, imbibing stimulants to keep awake. All there and all fluently told. Feb 05, Tomek rated it really liked it.
Mar 09, Prakhar Bindal rated it really liked it. On the joys of working one's self to death. The chapter 'Black Coffee' is a masterpiece of imaginative reconstruction. Dec 29, Tormund rated it it was amazing. An excellent and highly readable biography by Zweig who is an author himself of both fiction and non-fiction.
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Sposare una ricca vedova e coprire tutti i propri debiti. An excellent old fashioned character study. Balzac's life turns out to be like a Balzac novel with the exception of his ferocious will to write. He strictly regimented his writing life and the rest was a chaos of debt, courtships of women with money, and a series of madcap schemes many of which are comic - Sardinian silver mines?? The writings are treated in a genera way - the literary project and the development of the realistic novel. The couple of pages on Balzac's reviews of Stendhal and the An excellent old fashioned character study.
The couple of pages on Balzac's reviews of Stendhal and the latter's gratitude are touching. Ho scoperto Zweig come biografo, attraverso il suo Maria Antonietta, ma amo anche il romanziere.
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Nov 25, Claudia rated it it was amazing. Feb 17, Guillaume Frasca rated it really liked it. Balzac; Odeon, Praha, Shelves: biography , history , non-fiction. At the height of his fame in the nineteen-twenties and thirties Zweig was one of the most popular writers in the world.
That he should have fallen from such a lofty status is an enduring puzzle. One reason this biography is so successful as an exploration of the inner life of Balzac is that Zweig seems to have an innate sympathy of and understa At the height of his fame in the nineteen-twenties and thirties Zweig was one of the most popular writers in the world. One reason this biography is so successful as an exploration of the inner life of Balzac is that Zweig seems to have an innate sympathy of and understanding for the trials and stresses felt by Balzac as he labored away under the crushing need to make a living from his writing.
A principal theme of Zweig's analysis is that Balzac spent much of his life caught in a trap of financial necessity that forced him to over-produce and over-strain his creative faculties. Sometimes this pressure was to the benefit of his creativity, but more often than not the perpetual grind meant he wrote too much that was not worthy of his talent. Zweig provides a thorough examination of this literary affair from its outset to its tragic conclusion. The biography is idiosyncratic and sympathetic rather than scholarly and comprehensive, but is a marvelous exposition of the short-comings and successes of Balzac and is a worthy tribute from one literary giant to another.
If there are greater geniuses within the century of literature that preceded and followed, they are scant and few.